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One size does not fit all: European integration by differentiation

Maria Demertzis, Jean Pisani-Ferry, Andre Sapir, Thomas Wieser, and Guntram B. Wolff, (2018), «One size does not fit all: European integration by differentiation», Bruegel, 19 Σεπτεμβρίου

Reforming the governance of the European Union has become urgent for three reasons: to better deal with politically-sensitive topics, to manage greater external challenges and because future EU enlargement will increase the diversity of the bloc’s membership. The answer to disagreement typically has been qualified majority voting, but on sensitive topics, the EU has increasingly moved to unanimity and heavy European Council involvement, which has often not delivered results. The alternative answer has been a Europe of multiple speeds of integration with one shared goal for all, increasing political tensions. A different approach is now needed to move Europe forward.

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