The decade of the economic crisis has highlighted in the most apparent way the flaws and weaknesses in the original architecture of the Economic and Monetary Union as well as the need for decisive reforms. In this effort, the European Banking Union constitutes one of the most ambitious projects of the European Union with the intention of establishing a single system of banking supervision and resolution based on a common regulatory framework.
The three pillars of the banking union, analysed in the present policy brief- the Single Supervisory Mechanism, the Single Resolution Mechanism and the European Deposit Insurance Scheme– not only safeguard the banks against future financial crises but also ensure that their potential resolution will not be at the expense of the European taxpayers.
Yet, there are also significant challenges that come with the establishment of the banking union; the lack of agreement on a system of risk sharing among the member states has, so far, hindered the creation of the third pillar, the European Deposit Insurance Scheme. Moreover, the new dual role of the ECB, in monetary policy and in banking supervision, and the tendency of banks to buy domestic government debt, raise questions about the efficacy of the European Banking Union under its current design.