Eurostat, (2019), “Government debt up to 85.9% of GDP in euro area“, July
At the end of the first quarter of 2019, the government debt to GDP ratio in the euro area stood at 85.9%, compared with 85.1% at the end of the fourth quarter of 2018. In the EU28, the ratio increased from 80.0% to 80.7%. However, compared with the first quarter of 2018, the government debt to GDP ratio fell in both the euro area (from 87.1% to 85.9%) and the EU28 (from 81.6% to 80.7%). Debt securities accounted for 81.1% of euro area and for 81.9% of EU28 general government debt. Loans made up 15.8% and 13.9% respectively and currency and deposits represented 3.1% of euro area and 4.2% of EU28 government debt. Due to the involvement of EU Member States’ governments in financial assistance to certain Member States, quarterly data on intergovernmental lending (IGL) is also published.
- Daniel Gros, (2019), “Who holds Italian government debt? A Primer”, CEPS, Policy Insights No 2019-11/June 2019
- Cinzia Alcidi and Daniel Gros, (2019), “Public debt and the risk premium: A dangerous doom loop”, VoxEU, 23 May