Trebilcock, Michael, (2015), “Dealing with Losers-The Political Economy of Policy Transitions”, Politics Series, Oxford University Press, 8 October
Whenever governments change policies—tax, expenditure, or regulatory policies, among others—there will typically be losers: people or groups who relied upon and invested in physical, financial, or human capital predicated on, or even deliberately induced by the pre-reform set of policies. The issue of whether and when to mitigate the costs associated with policy changes, either through explicit government compensation, grandfathering, phased or postponed implementation, is ubiquitous across the policy landscape. Much of the existing literature covers government takings, yet compensation for expropriation comprises merely a tiny part of the universe of such strategies.
- Ward-Warmedinger, M., Macchiarelli, C., (2013), “Transitions in Labour Market Status in the EU”, IZA Discussion Papers, N. 7814/2013.
- Heyes, J. (2014) “Vocational education and training and the Great Recession: supporting young people in a time of crisis“, Report 131, European Trade Union Institute (ETUI).