In 2018, the government deficit and debt of both the euro area (EA19) and the EU28 decreased in relative term compared with 2017. In the euro area the government deficit to GDP ratio fell from 1.0% in 2017 to 0.5% in 2018, and in the EU28 from 1.0% to 0.6%. In the euro area the government debt to GDP ratio declined from 87.1% at the end of 2017 to 85.1% at the end of 2018, and in the EU28 from 81.7% to 80.0%.
- Jasper De Jong, Niels Gilbert, (2019), «The mixed success of the Stability and Growth Pact», VoxEU.org, 15 Ιανουαρίου
- Olivier Blanchard, Álvaro Leandro, Silvia Merler and Jeromin Zettelmeyer, (2018), «Impact of Italy’s Draft Budget on Growth and Fiscal Solvency», Peterson Institute for International Economics, Policy Brief 18-24, Νοέμβριος